(The following material is excerpted from the
NVAA specialized offering "The Ultimate Educator" by Edmunds, C., K.
Lowe, M. Murray, and A. Seymour.)
Historical Roots of Adult Learning Principles
Since the 1970s, adult learning theory
has offered a framework for educators and trainers whose job
it is to train adults. Malcolm S. Knowles (1973) was among the
first proponents of this approach. In his book, The Adult
Learner: A Neglected Species, he resurrected the word
"andragogy" a term popular in German education circles in the
early 1800s, and used it to label his attempt to create a
unified theory of adult learning. Knowles' contentions were
based on four assumptions:
1. As they mature, adults tend to
prefer self-direction. The role of the instructor is to
engage in a process of inquiry, analysis, and
decision-making with adult learners, rather than to transmit
2. Adults' experiences are a rich
resource for learning. Active participation in planned
experiences—such as discussions or problem solving
exercises, an analysis of those experiences, and their
application to work or life situations—should be the core
methodology for training adults. Adults learn and retain
information more easily if they can relate it to their
reservoir of past experiences.
3. Adults are aware of specific
learning needs generated by real-life events such as
marriage, divorce, parenting, taking a new job, losing a
job, and so on. Adult learners' needs and interests are the
starting points and serve as guideposts for training
4. Adults are competency-based
learners, meaning that they want to learn a skill or acquire
knowledge that they can apply pragmatically to their
immediate circumstances. Life or work-related situations
present a more appropriate framework for adult learning than
academic or theoretical approaches.
Robert W. Pike (1989), an
internationally recognized expert in human resources
development and author of the book Creative Training
Techniques, has conducted thousands of adult training
seminars. His principles of adult learning, referred to as
"Pike's Laws of Adult Learning," have built upon the original
philosophy to provide similar guidance for trainers:
Law 1: Adults are babies with big
bodies. It is accepted that babies enjoy learning
through experience, because every exploration is a new
experience. As children grow, educators traditionally reduce
the amount of learning through experience to the point that
few courses in secondary and higher education devote
significant time to experiential education. It is now
recognized that adult learning is enhanced by hands-on
experience that involves adults in the learning process. In
addition, adults bring a wealth of experience that must be
acknowledged and respected in the training setting.
Law 2: People do not argue with
their own data. Succinctly put, people are more likely
to believe something fervently if they arrive at the idea
themselves. Thus, when training adults, presenting structured
activities that generate the students' ideas, concepts, or
techniques will facilitate learning more effectively than
simply giving adults information to remember.
Law 3: Learning is directly
proportional to the amount of fun you are having.
Humor is an important tool for coping with stress and anxiety,
and can be effective in promoting a comfortable learning
environment. If you are involved in the learning process and
understand how it will enable you to do your job or other
chosen task better, you can experience the sheer joy of
Law 4: Learning has not taken
place until behavior has changed. It is not what
you know, but what you do that counts. The ability
to apply new material is a good measure of whether learning
has taken place. Experiences that provide an opportunity for
successfully practicing a new skill will increase the
likelihood of retention and on-the-job application.
Adult Learning and the Ultimate
DESIGN AND DELIVER TRAINING FIRMLY
GROUNDED ON PRINCIPLES OF ADULT LEARNING
For more than two decades, adult
learning theory has served as the framework for training
adults. The idea that adults as learners require different
educational strategies than children was first voiced fifty
years ago when Irving Lorge (1947), writing about effective
methods in adult education, suggested that to reach the adult
learner, you have to teach to what adults want. He stated that
adults have "wants" in the following four areas:
1. To gain something.
2. To be something.
3. To do something.
4. To save something.
Eduard Lindeman, also writing in the
1940s, proposed that adults learn best when they are actively
involved in determining what, how, and when they learn. Since
the 1970s, several authors and training experts have expanded
upon the original concepts presented as adult learning theory.
Ultimate instruction, as used here,
means helping adults to learn and involves far more than
lecturing or presenting information. It involves instructing
for results—powerful, highly effective instruction that
results in applicable learning for adult participants. The
material presented here is intended as a guide for both new
and experienced trainers and educators. The reader is
encouraged to adapt these ideas and techniques freely and to
modify them as necessary to compliment his or her unique style
of instruction. You, too, can become an ultimate educator.
KEY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ADULTS AND
CHILDREN AS LEARNERS
Adults differ from children as
learners. An adult has assumed responsibility for
himself/herself and others. Adults differ specifically in
self-concept, experience, readiness to learn, time
perspective, and orientation to learning. Traditional teaching
applied to children is "jug and mug" with the big jug (the
teacher) filling up the little mugs (the students). Students
are asked to pay attention and have few opportunities to make
use of their own experience (Klatt 1999).
The following chart identifies some key
differences between children and adults as learners:
Child and Adult Learning
Rely on others to decide what is important to be
Decide for themselves what is important to be
Accept the information being presented at face
Need to validate the information based on their
beliefs and values.
Expect what they are learning to be useful in
their long-term future.
Expect what they are learning to be immediately
Have little or no experience upon which to draw,
are relatively "blank slates."
Have substantial experience upon which to draw.
May have fixed viewpoints.
Little ability to serve as a knowledgeable
resource to teacher or fellow classmates.
Significant ability to serve as a knowledgeable
resource to the trainer and fellow learners.
INSTRUCTION BASED ON FIVE BASIC
PRINCIPLES OF ADULT LEARNING
Often, peoples' expectations about the role
of an instructor and beliefs about how adults learn are derived
from personal experience in a college lecture hall or a job
training program or from studying classical learning theories.
However, learning in adult human beings seems to be a more complex
phenomenon than some of the classical theories suggest. Three
principles that provide the foundation for adult learning today
can be summarized as follows:
1. The adult learner is primarily in
charge of his or her own learning. Remember that instructors
do not have the power to implant ideas or to transfer skills
directly to the learner. They can only suggest and guide.
2. An instructor's primary
responsibility is to do a good job of managing the process
through which adults learn.
3. The learners are encouraged to use
their own judgment and decision-making capabilities.
Instructors are leaders, not dictators.
They do have responsibility to make decisions, provide
guidance, and be a resource for the students' learning.
Although instructors often view themselves as the ultimate
authority on the subject matter, it is still up to the
learners to determine whether the ideas presented in the
session should be incorporated into their work or personal
lives. Despite the primary role of the learner, instruction is
not a passive, laid-back, go-with-the-flow process for the
instructor. As the facilitator and catalyst for participants'
learning, the instructor makes it possible for learning to
happen by designing and performing all the activities that the
learning processes requires.
In their research on adult learning,
Sullivan, Wircenski, Arnold, and Sarkees (1990) assert that
the establishment of a positive learning climate hinges on
understanding the characteristics of adult learners who will
be participating in the instructional process. They report the
dynamics of the instructional process are very much dependent
on the instructor having a clear understanding of the
participants. Sullivan et. al. cited applicable
characteristics of relevance, motivation, participation,
variety, positive feedback, personal concerns, and uniqueness.
Principle 1: Leadership.
The adult learner enters the training or educational
environment with a deep need to be self-directing and to take
a leadership role in his or her learning. The psychological
definition of "adult" is one who has achieved a self-concept
of being in charge of his or her own decisions and living with
the consequences; this carries over into the instructional
setting. Thus, instructors can help learners acquire new
knowledge and develop new skills, but they cannot do the
learning for learners.
Although adults may be completely self
directing in most (if not all) aspects of their lives, some
can fall back to their conditioning in school and college and
put on their hats of dependency, fold their arms, sit back,
and say "teach me" when they enter a program labeled
"education" or "training." (This is especially true when
adults enter a "training room" set up "classroom style.") To
resolve the "dependency" problem, adult educators have
developed strategies for helping adults make a quick
transition from seeing themselves as dependent learners
to becoming self-directed learners. Adult educators, in
the development of a learning environment, define the process
through which learning takes place. For example:
The instructor guides the learners
in determining the relevance of the learning for their own
lives and work; whereas,
The learners are encouraged to use
their own leadership, judgment, and decision-making
To reinforce the notion of learner
responsibility in the instructional process, a variety of
activities can be used to obtain information from participants
regarding what they want to get out of the session and to
ensure a match between instructor and participant objectives.
Information should be gathered from
participants prior to the session to assess participants'
skill levels, prior training, education, and professional
experience and interest in, need for, and expectations for the
session. This can be done through an application form,
learning contracts, a mail (electronic or paper) survey of
registered participants, or a brief telephone interview if the
number of participants is small. This information can be used
to organize instructional objectives, sequence content, and
During an introductory section,
participants can be asked to write down their most important
goal for the session, and then be asked to share their
expectations. Students are asked to put their comments
regarding goals on a wall chart labeled "expectations" or
"learning goals." Instructors can also ask participants to
list the skills, experience, and positive characteristics they
bring to the learning environment. This process honors
participants, identifies participant resources for the group,
and provides additional assessment data. The instructor can
read goals from the sheet periodically throughout the session
and indicate when a section is particularly designed to meet
that learner's need, thereby reinforcing learner investment in
The ultimate educator remains alert
to the first principle of adult learning: Adults enter the
learning environment with a deep need to be self-directing and
take a leadership role in his or her learning.
Principle 2: Experience.
The word "experience" holds two meanings for the ultimate
educator. Experience is the accumulated knowledge an
individual arrives with at the session, as well as an
individual's active participation in events or activities
during the session.
Adults bring to a learning situation a
background of experience that is a rich resource for
themselves and for others. In adult education, there is a
greater emphasis on the use of experiential learning
techniques (discussion methods, case studies, problem-solving
exercises) that tap into the accumulated knowledge and skills
of the learners and techniques such as simulation exercises
and field experiences that provide learners with experiences
from which they can learn by analyzing them. A rich,
adult-focused instructional approach takes into account the
experiences and knowledge that adults bring to the session. It
then expands upon and refines this prior knowledge by
connecting it to new learning, making the instruction relevant
to important issues and tasks in the adults' lives.
In discussing what all learners have in
common, Robert F. Mager (1992) stated that the more you know
about participants, the better you can tailor instruction to
meet their needs. He provided the following list of key points
Everyone comes to the learning
situation with a lifetime of experience, regardless of
The lifetime experiences of each
learner are different from those of others.
Lifetime experiences also includes
misconceptions, biases, prejudices, and preferences. In
other words, some of what people think they know is
It is also important to recognize that
the experience that adults possess is significantly different
in quality from that of youths:
Few youths have had the experience
of being full-time workers, spouses, parents, voting
citizens, organizational leaders, or other adult roles.
Accordingly, adults have a different perspective on
experience: it is their chief source of self-identity.
To youths, experience is something
that happens to them, whereas adults define themselves in
terms of their unique experiences.
An adult's experience is who he or
she is. So if an adult's experience is not respected and
valued, it cannot be used as a resource for learning.
Adults experience this omission as a rejection of their
experience and as a rejection of them as persons, which
negatively affects learning.
Few individuals prefer to just sit back
and listen to a teacher or trainer go on and on about the
topic. The effective instructor keeps this point in mind and
designs learning experiences that actively involve adults with
various levels of experience in the instructional process.
This entails practice activities such as discussion, hands-on
work, or projects for each of the concepts that the instructor
wants the participants to master.
Concentration is also an important
issue. Humans can only consciously think about one thing at
a time. It is essential to provide learning environments that
help learners concentrate on their learning tasks. Contents,
formats, and sequences must be interesting to compete with
other attention-demanding thoughts and environmental
intrusions (McLagen 1978).
Boud, Keogh, and Walker (1985) found
that adults have a broader base of experience to which new
ideas and skills can be attached; furthermore, a broader
experience base allows adults to incorporate new ideas and
skills with much richer and fuller meaning than do youths. The
more clearly defined the relationship between the old and the
new (through discussion and reflection), the deeper and more
permanent the learning will be. For example:
On-the-job training, small group
discussions, case study work, or even computer-based
training all embrace the concept that participation helps
increase involvement in the learning process and retention
of the knowledge.
Information that goes into the
participant's memory will likely be remembered if learners
practice remembering the information soon after they process
it. Therefore, it is important to provide opportunities in the
session for review and remembering by means of activities like
written summaries, application exercises, and discussions
(Zemke and Zemke 1995).
Studies show that over a period of
three days, learning retention is as follows:
10% of what you read.
20% of what you hear.
30% of what you see.
50% of what you see and hear.
70% of what you say.
90% of what you say as you do
(e.g., orally work out a problem) (Pike 1989).
The ultimate educator knows that
experience is a rich resource for adult learning and therefore
actively involves adults in the learning process.
Principle 3: Appeal.
Appeal is the power of attracting or arousing interest. Adult
learners are motivated to learn when they have a need to know.
They want to know how the instruction will help them and often
ask themselves the following questions:
What's in it for me?
Why do I need this information?
How will I benefit from it?
How can I make use of it in a
practical, real way?
How will it help me be a better
person or professional?
Training and development expert Robert
F. Mager (1992) brings this point home with his first
two rules of training:
Rule #1: Training is appropriate
only when two conditions are present:
Rule #2: If they already know how,
more training won't help.
Adult orientation to learning is
centered on life or work. Therefore, the appropriate
frameworks for organizing adult learning are life and/or
work-related situations, not academic or theoretical subjects.
Meaningful learning can be intrinsically motivating.
The key to using adult's "natural"
motivation to learn is tapping into their most teachable
moments: those points in their lives when they believe they
need to learn something new or different (Zemke & Zemke
Sometimes, adults enter the learning
environment with little interest or motivation. Many
genuinely want to improve their job performance or to learn
new knowledge and skills in order to move up the career
Their motivation can diminish if the instructor fails
to direct and encourage this or other interests and motivations.
Trainers can help learners develop an
early and appropriate "mental set" for learning programs
by overviewing the course objectives, describing upcoming
activities, and helping them see the future advantages of the
instruction to them and their work (McLagen 1978).
Introductory exercises early in the session can help establish
the mental set. For example, an exercise titled "hopes and
fears" allows participates the opportunity to express their
learning goals and concerns. In this exercise, participants
are instructed to write down on tear sheets their hopes (goals
and desires) and fears (concerns and specific issues about the
instructional session), individually or in small groups. The
instructor then uses this information to ensure that
instructional objectives are on the mark and that the
instructor is sensitive to individual participants.
Motivation can be improved and
channeled by the instructor who provides clear instructional
goals and learning activities that encourage and support
strong learner interest. To best capitalizeon this high level
of learner interest, the instructor should explore ways by
which the needs of each learner can be incorporated into the
training sessions. This would include:
Five Ways to Squelch Motivation
- Have little
- Get participants
in a passive mood and keep them there.
- Assume the class
will apply what is taught; do not
bother with examples.
- Be alert to
- Make them feel
stupid for asking questions in class
Studies show that part of an adult's preparation to
learn is determining the benefits of the learning, as well as the
disadvantages of not learning. Allen Tough (1972) found that adults would
expend considerable time and energy exploring the benefits of learning
something, and what the costs would be of not learning it before they would be
willing to invest time and energy in learning it.
Therefore, a key principle in adult
learning is that the ultimate educator needs to develop an
appeal, a "need to know" in the learners-to make a case for
the value in their life performance of learning what is
offered. At the minimum, this case should be made through
testimony from the experience of the instructor or a
successful practitioner; at the maximum, by providing real or
simulated experiences through which the learners experience
the benefits of knowing and the costs of not knowing.
Principle 4: Respect. The
word respect here is defined as "esteem." The instructor of
adults must show deferential regard for the learner by
acknowledging an adult learner's experience and creating a
climate in the learning setting that conveys respect.
People are more open to learning if
they feel respected. If they feel that they are being talked
down to, patronized, or otherwise denigrated, their energy is
diverted from learning to dealing with these feelings. The
following suggestions are offered as ways in which the
instructor can help foster a comfortable, productive learning
climate through the attitude that he or she projects:
Show respect for the learner's
individuality and experience.
Be sensitive to the language you
use so that learners are not inadvertently offended.
Be open to different perspectives.
Adopt a caring attitude and show
Treat the learners as individuals
rather than as a group of people who are all alike.
Support all learner comments by
acknowledging the "rightness" that is in each comment and
Take the learning process seriously
because it is serious and important (McLagen 1978).
Establish a learning climate of:
Adult learners respond to
reinforcements. Although adult learners are usually
self-directed, they do need to receive reinforcement. Most
people are like dry sponges waiting for a drop of
appreciation. Instructors should take every opportunity to
demonstrate appreciation in the classroom.
Sullivan, Wircenski, Arnold, and
Sarkees (1990) write that the need for positive feedback is a
characteristic of the adult learner. Like most learners,
adults prefer to know how their efforts measure up when
compared with the objectives of the instructional program.
Adults have a tendency to "vote with their feet"; that is, if
they find the program to be a negative experience, they will
find some reason to drop out of the program before its
The ultimate educator honors adult
learners' individuality and experience and creates a safe,
respectful, and participant-centered environment for learning
to take place.
Principle 5: Novel Styles.
The last principle refers to individual or novel styles that
characterize learners. Novel styles are defined as different,
unique learning styles and preferences. Generally, most adults
prefer to be treated as individuals who are unique and have
particular differences. The instructor must keep in mind that
although adults have common characteristics as learners,
adults also have individual differences and most adults have
preferred methods for learning. Adult learners respond better
when new material is presented through a variety of
instructional methods, appealing to their different learning
No matter how well planned a program
is, individual differences among participants often make
it necessary to make some adjustments during the program.
Flexibility can be incorporated into programs, but such
flexibility must be grounded in an understanding of how
learners may differ. When developing an instructional program,
the instructor must take into consideration the novel styles
of learning that each adult brings to the session. The
following section discusses a variety of approaches to
Most adult learners have developed a
preference for learning that is rooted in childhood learning
patterns. To understand and address adult learners, it is
important to understand differences in children's development
and learning. As children develop, their ability to process
information is affected by their own individual strengths and
weaknesses and the environment in which they grow and learn.
Individual differences in children's interests, aptitudes,
abilities, and achievement can be quite pronounced. For
example, some children have an especially strong auditory
memory that enables them to remember what they hear with
little effort, while others may be less skilled. This can be
seen in differences in following verbal directions given by a
teacher or coach, or in the ability to learn the words to a
new song. Some children have an especially keen eye for
noticing detail in pictures or a design in a pattern. This can
be seen in differences in speed in recognizing letters of the
alphabet or understanding principles of geometry. Some
children are very talented artists from the first moment they
are given crayons or other tools to draw, while others develop
such a skill through structured learning opportunities at
school and at home.
Behavioral characteristics can also
affect learning in children. Children may have a short
attention span or be easily distracted by sounds or movement
around them, while others can stay with a task for a lengthy
period of time, regardless of what might be going on around
them. Some children appear more "emotionally mature," which
can translate into greater patience, ability to cooperate, or
a higher tolerance for frustration, while others become upset
quickly if a task is frustrating. Some children have a "need
to move" or be more active than is typical for their age
group; others simply have more stamina, and so on.
In addition, stimulation and
opportunity can affect ability and achievement. If a child is
deprived of opportunities to move, explore, touch, grasp,
and/or interact with sound and speech, long-term learning
ability is diminished. Furthermore, without opportunities to
use once learned skills, the ability to perform tasks is often
lost and must be relearned.
It must be emphasized that adult
learning theory is based in the notion that we are not "just
teaching grown-up children." It must be recognized that a
person's aptitudes and abilities are shaped by individual
differences and early learning experiences and continue to be
influenced by experience and training throughout adulthood. In
fact, many adults seek jobs that consistently give them
opportunities to display special talents and rely upon their
preferred learning style.
ADULT LEARNING STYLES
(Portions of the following section were
excerpted with modification from National District Attorneys
Advocacy Center, Train the Trainers Workshop, 1999.)
In adult learning theory, several
approaches to learning style have been developed and are
prominently used in training and educational programs. These
include learning styles based on the senses that are involved
in processing information; theories of intelligence, including
emotional intelligence and "multiple intelligences"; and
preferences for learning conditions, i.e., the environment in
which learning takes place. In order to provide a framework
for a discussion on adult learning style differences, each of
these approaches is briefly discussed.
Auditory, visual, and kinesthetic
learners. Differing aptitudes, abilities, and
experiences have caused individuals to develop a preference
for sending and receiving information through one sense over
another. Most often people prefer auditory or visual input;
however, some people have a preference for kinesthetic
learning, i.e. learning that involves movement. A preference
for one type of learning over another may be seen in the
Visual learners prefer, enjoy,
or require: Graphic illustrations such as bar graphs
or crosstabs to explain data; color codes to highlight
salient information; maps to find their way on the subway
or while driving in a new city; written material to study
new concepts; wall charts that display points to be
remembered; written outlines; drawings or designs to
illustrate overhead presentations; sitting "up close" in a
presentation in order to see the presenter's face,
gestures, or visuals; taking notes during a lecture;
instructors to repeat verbal directions.
Auditory learners prefer,
enjoy, or require: A verbal presentation of new
information, such as a lecture; group discussions to hear
other points of view or practices; fast-paced verbal
exchanges of ideas; a good joke or story that they can
repeat for others; verbal cues or pneumonic devices to
help them remember information; music at the beginning or
during transitions in a training setting; words to
accompany a cartoon; oral reports of working groups.
Kinesthetic learners prefer,
enjoy, or require: Movement, such as rocking or
shaking a leg during a lecture; hands-on experience to
learn a task; gestures while making a point; role play
exercises over discussion groups; shaking hands when
meeting or greeting people; trying new things without a
lengthy explanation of the activity; frequent breaks;
regular opportunities to change seating or room
arrangement; "just doing it" rather than talking about it.
While it is thought that people have
developed a preference for or have greater skill in processing
one type of input over others, most people simultaneously
process information through multiple senses. In fact, the
retention of learned material is enhanced if the learner is
asked to process information using more than one sense.
Presentations that are multisensory (using visual and auditory
components) in combination with interactive activities will
increase learning and retention for most adults.
THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE
(Portions of the following section were
excerpted with modification from National District Attorneys
Advocacy Center, Train the Trainers Workshop, 1999.)
Intelligence has long been considered a
key factor in predicting and evaluating learning.
Educators have developed a variety of teaching strategies to
accommodate varying levels of intelligence, most of which have
been based on a traditional Western approach to intelligence.
Theories of adult intelligence have evolved considerably in
recent decades. The traditional constructs of IQ (intelligence
quotient) derived from verbal and nonverbal intelligence have
been expanded to include EQ (emotional quotient, suggesting
that emotional maturity and ability contribute significantly
to achievement), as well as theories of "multiple
intelligences." Howard Gardner (1982), a proponent of
"multiple intelligences" theory, suggests that educators do
people a disservice by thinking of intelligence levels in
traditionally narrow dimensions that relate most significantly
to academic achievement. Gardner proposes seven broader
dimensions of intelligences:
Verbal and linguistic.
Ability to deal with words and language, both written and
Logical and mathematical.
Ability to do inductive and deductive thinking, numbers,
abstract patterns, and reasoning ability.
Musical. Ability to
recognize tonal patterns, pitch, melody, rhythms, and
Kinesthetic. Ability to use
the body skillfully.
Visual and spatial. Ability
to observe and process visual stimuli and visualize or
create visual images.
Interpersonal. Ability to
develop and maintain relationships and understand,
communicate, and work with other people.
Understanding of self and one's own feelings, values, and
Many instructors have found
applications for this new way of defining intelligence or
aptitude. In general, the instructors have utilized this
theory to support the notion that instruction should entail
far more than a verbal/linguistic presentation of ideas, and
include experiential opportunities that enable people with
varying types of "intelligence" to be successful.
Learning Environment Conditions
The physical environment in which
instruction takes place and the structure of the activities in
the course can also affect learning positively or negatively.
People react differently to such factors as room temperature,
arrangement of the room (e.g., closeness of seats), time of
day (early morning versus late in the day), brightness of the
lighting, and sound (e.g., noise distractions from nearby
construction or talking among participants). In addition,
adults differ with regard to whether they prefer to work alone
or in groups. Sharon Fisher (1989) has combined all of these
factors to depict the various types of preferences that adults
may have when they enter the learning environment:
Adult Preferences Regarding a
Time of Day
Learn with Others
An instructor must recognize that
adults' preferences in these areas may affect their
responsiveness in the session. Efforts should be made to
accommodate differences by providing a variety of learning
activities in which participants may feel comfortable.
The ultimate educator delivers
instruction in a stimulating, rich, and diverse environment
through a variety of instructional methods to appeal to adult
participants' learning styles and preferences.
The Ultimate Educator Is an Adult
Adult learning theory is grounded in
the notion that adults are in charge of and need to be active
participants in their learning. Adults bring a wide range of
experiences and perspectives to any instructional setting, and
are most likely to be motivated when they see a connection
between the learning objectives and activities and their own
work or life. Adults also bring preferences for how they learn
as well as varying aptitudes and abilities. Ultimate educators
provide opportunities for adults to use what they already know
and apply what they are learning in the instructional setting.
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